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如何在科技论文中使用时态 - LetPub SCI论文写作系列2

一篇典型的科技论文有一个基本的框架结构:Abstract (综述科研背景,提出研究的问题和假设(hypothesis)),Materials and Methods (描述自己的研究方法),Results (分析所得的研究结果),Discussion (深入讨论研究结果的意义并简要指出将来的研究方向)。我们现根据这个论文框架,就一些规律性问题做些探讨,希望对大家有所帮助。

1、一般现在时:主要用于不受时间限制的客观存在事实的描述,或发生或存在于写论文之时的感觉、状态、关系等的描述或致谢的表述等。值得注意的是,出于尊重,凡是他人已经发表的研究成果作为"previously established knowledge",在引述时普遍都用一般现在时。
3、 一般将来时:用于撰写论文之后发生的动作或存在的状态。例如提出下一步的研究方向。





例如:Genomics provides crucial information for rational drug design.


例如:Many of the lakes and wetlands in the region are located in craters or valleys blocked by early Pliocene lava flows (Ollier & Joyce, 1964).
Garcia (1993) suggested that under certain conditions, an individual’s deposit income is the same as the income from purchased national debt, thus changes in the amount of bank loans and deposits caused by changes in the amount of reserves will eventually affect the bond price.

  1. 需要注意的是如果引用的是一些已经过时或失效的科研结果,动词要使用过去时。

例如:Nineteenth-century physicians held that women got migraines because they were "the weaker sex," but current research shows that the causes of migraine are unrelated to gender. 

材料与方法(Materials and Methods):

例如:(例1) Total phosphorous (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were measured in the laboratory using standard procedures.
(例2)The standard protocol was followed for the preparation of the media from stock solutions.


  1. 对自己得出的研究结果,采用过去时进行详细的阐述。

例如:(例1)Overall, more than 70% of the insects collected were non-phytophagous.
(例2) Following activation of NT oocytes with strontium, the cell cycle resumed in both groups.

  1. 描述图表内容通常采用现在时。

例如:(例1) Figure 1 displays the comparative variation in the morphology of donor chromatin in both age groups of oocytes.
(例2) Table 1 below shows the stream flows calculated for each stream using Equation 1.


  1. 采用现在时表达研究结果的意义。

例如:Removal of vegetation for agricultural purposes appears to negatively affect the water quality of streams.

  1. 采用过去时总结研究结果,并采用现在时对研究结果进行讨论与解释。

例如:(例1)Weight increased as the nutritional value of feed increased. These results suggestthat feeds higher in nutritional value contribute to greater weight gain in livestock. 
(例2)Leaf carbon and phenolic content did not differ across sites, indicating that the response of
secondary plant chemicals such as phenolics to water is complex.


例如:Although the study found evidence of tillage and irrigation within the study area, from the data collected it was not possible to determine if the effects of agriculture upstream cause (or caused) higher levels of total nitrogen downstream. Further studies are therefore necessary to determine the effects of agriculture on the health of Stringybark Creek.


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